Hindu Marriage Act



by | Nov 30, 2022

The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955: Insights by Advocate Sachin Nayak a praticing Divorce Lawyer in Bhopal

Advocate Sachin Nayak, a prominent lawyer in Bhopal, provides an expert analysis of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, along with key Supreme Court judgments that have shaped its interpretation and application.

Introduction to the Hindu Marriage Act

The Act, integral to Hindu matrimonial law, was established to safeguard marital rights and obligations. It reflects India’s diverse cultural backdrop in matrimonial norms.

Applicability of the Act (Section 2)

The Act applies broadly to Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs, with exclusions for Muslims, Christians, Jews, and Parsis.

Conditions for Marriage (Section 5)

For a marriage to be valid:

  • There should be no living spouse at the time of marriage.
  • Parties should not suffer from mental illness or fall within prohibited relationships, unless custom permits.

Landmark Judgment: Smt. Seema v. Ashwani Kumar (2006), mandating registration of marriages under this Act.

Voidable Marriages (Section 12)

Marriages can be annulled in cases of impotency, fraud, or force in obtaining consent.

Landmark Judgment: Y. Narasimha Rao and Ors. v. Y. Venkata Lakshmi and Anr (1991), clarifying cross-border marriage laws under this Act.

Ceremonies Under Section 7

Ceremonies like Kanyadan, Saptapadi, and Homa are essential for the validity of a Hindu marriage.

Landmark Judgment: S. Nagalingam v. Sivagami (2001), emphasizing the importance of customary rites.

Divorce Provisions (Section 13)

Divorce can be sought on grounds of cruelty, desertion, conversion, leprosy, renunciation, and presumption of death.

Landmark Judgments:

  • Samar Ghosh v. Jaya Ghosh (2007), defining mental cruelty as a ground for divorce.
  • Ramesh Chander v. Veena (2010), discussing desertion as a ground for divorce.

Alimonies (Sections 24 and 25)

These sections deal with maintenance and alimony, ensuring financial support post-divorce.

Landmark Judgment: Rajnesh v. Neha & Anr (2020), clarifying criteria for determining the quantum of alimony.

Remarriage Conditions (Section 15)

This section stipulates conditions under which remarriage is permissible.

Landmark Judgment: Neelam Kumar v. Dayarani (2010), focusing on the legal intricacies of remarriage.

Restitution of Conjugal Rights (Section 9)

This provision enables a spouse to seek restitution if one withdraws from the other’s company without reasonable cause.

Landmark Judgment: Saroj Rani v. Sudarshan Kumar Chadha (1984), affirming the constitutional validity of this provision.

Judicial Separation (Section 10)

Judicial separation provides an alternative to divorce, allowing for potential reconciliation.

Landmark Judgment: K. Srinivas Rao v. D.A. Deepa (2013), elaborating on judicial separation as a precursor to divorce.


Advocate Sachin Nayak’s expertise as a criminal defense attorney, bail application lawyer, and high court advocate in Bhopal makes him an ideal legal advisor for issues related to the Hindu Marriage Act. His proficiency in handling cases in Bhopal’s courts ensures adept legal representation and consultation.

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